Osijek after the Turks
Osijek was liberated from the Turks on 29 September, 1687. After the liberation the weakest defence points were strengthened and afterwards the complete urban structure was changed. The inhabitants of the part under a fortified place were moved about a kilometre and a half upstream of the Fortress because of the construction of new fortifications.
In the year 1692 the Upper Town was formed. At about the same distance, downstream of the Fortress, the Down Town was built in the year 1698 and settled mostly by the inhabitants from swampy islands from Baranya. These three parts of the city, the Fortress, the Upper and the Down Town were developing in 18. century as three separate communities.
All three independent communities: the Fortress, the Upper and the Down Town that were rather distant one from the other, were united in one city in the year 1786. Twenty years after the unification Osijek was declared the Free Royal City in the year 1809. Almost till the middle of 19. century Osijek was the biggest city in Croatia, but because of its political and traffic isolation it lost its importance and it became the fourth city, according to the size. Today Osijek is also on the fourth place. The institutions of City government were moved to the Upper Town in 18. century.
With the historic building of the Upper Town towards the Fortress the prerequisites for connecting further parts and for building new settlements were made. In the year 1884 the city got a new way of a public transport – a horse tram. It was the first horse tram south from Vienna and Budapest.
Although there was a discontinuous urban development that lasted for almost 2000 years, the city of Osijek can be proud of its architectural inheritance gathered in the last 300 years. Preserved architecture and numerous cultural and historic objects can show us that Osijek was involved in all periods of middle-European cultural life.